Cancer cell: A cell that divides and reproduces abnormally and can spread throughout the body, crowding out normal cells and tissue.

Cancer care team: The group of healthcare professionals who work together to find, treat, and care for people with cancer.

CT scan (computed tomography scan): An imaging test in which many X-rays are taken from different angles of a part of the body.

Cone beam CT: Cone beam computed tomography provides 3-D volumetric imaging. Put simply, it gives your clinicians a better view of your tumor for a more precise treatment.

Cyclotron: A machine that takes protons extracted from hydrogen atoms and accelerates them to almost the speed of light.

Fixed-beam room: A dedicated room for the delivery of a horizontal proton beam that is fixed in place.

Isocentric gantry room: A treatment room in which the gantry rotates the beam angle 360 degrees around the patient.

Malignant: Cancerous: dangerous or likely to cause death if untreated.

MRI (magnetic resonance imaging): A method of taking detailed pictures of the inside of the body. Instead of using X-rays, MRI uses a powerful magnet to send radio waves through the body.

Pencil-beam scanning: Also known as spot-scanning proton therapy. It is the process of using an ultra-fine proton beam measuring only a few millimeters across each layer of the tumor. It’s the ideal technology for irregularly shaped tumors near sensitive areas.

Proton therapy: One of the most promising developments in cancer treatment because it targets tumors while minimizing damage to surrounding healthy tissue. This type of advanced radiation therapy uses protons to eliminate cancer cells with exceptional precision.

Radiation oncologist: A cancer doctor specializing in radiation therapy.

Treatment plan: A scheduled set of activities and procedures your clinicians create to treat your cancer.

Tumor markers: Substances that can be found in the body when a person has cancer. These substances are usually made by cancer cells, but are sometimes normal cells as well.

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