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- Sarcomas account for about 1 percent of adult cancers and about 20 percent of childhood cancers.
- In the U.S., about 12,750 new cases of soft tissue sarcoma are expected to be diagnosed in 2019, resulting in approximately 5,270 deaths.
- In the U.S., about 3,500 new cases of bone and joint cancer are expected to be diagnosed in 2019, with approximately 1,660 deaths.
Sarcoma Risk Factors
There are no known reasons for developing sarcomas, but certain risk factors have been identified based on common characteristics in individuals who developed the disease, including:
- High doses of radiation exposure from treatments for other cancers; however, radiation treatment techniques have improved to ensure the targeted area is treated more precisely so effects on surrounding tissues and organs are minimized.
- Individuals exposed to herbicides with phenoxyacetic acid and wood preservatives with chlorophenols have a higher risk.
- Individuals with certain inherited diseases, including Li-Fraumeni syndrome, retinoblastoma, Paget’s disease of bone, multiple exostoses syndrome, Gardner syndrome, Werner syndrome, Gorlin syndrome, von Recklinghausen disease, neurofibromatosis, or tuberous sclerosis have an increased risk of developing a soft-tissue or bone sarcoma.
- Damage to a person’s lymph system, which can occur through surgery or radiation therapy, is also a risk factor associated with soft-tissue sarcoma.
Sarcoma Symptoms and Signs
In the early stages, it can be difficult to determine if a sarcoma is present and can go undetected for a long period of time. Bone pain, suspicious lumps, or swollen areas of the body should be evaluated by a physician, who may conduct a biopsy to determine if the lump is a malignant tumor or benign. Over time, tumors will grow, become sore, and eventually cause pain, bone fracturing, swelling, numbness, tingling, or weakness because the tumor presses against nerves or muscles.
There are no known ways to prevent the development of a bone or soft-tissue sarcoma. Maintaining a healthy lifestyle and getting regular check-ups are the best ways to reduce the risk for developing all forms of cancer.
Once a sarcoma is diagnosed, the treatment plan will be based on type, location, stage, and the patient’s overall health. Depending on the cancer’s location, as well as its stage of development, surgery is an option for treatment. For a soft-tissue sarcoma, tissue in distant sites is sometimes removed if the disease has spread to other areas. Chemotherapy or radiation therapy may also be used to shrink the tumor before surgery. Following the surgery, patients may receive radiation therapy or chemotherapy to improve the chances of eliminating all tumor cells.